The term “blockchain trading” encompasses a wide variety of market activity ranging from spot markets for cryptocurrency, to back end infrastructure on traditional asset exchanges. As highlighted in this chapter, the spectrum of trading venues, asset types, and service providers is vast. Additionally, new applications are arriving even beyond those that we address, such as the market for energy trading. We review the extant literature on various benefits and challenges to widespread adoption of blockchains in ​trading and exchange, but note that there will be numerous avenues for future research by financial scholars as these systems continue to develop and evolve.